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CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

19 March 1959

MEMORANDUM FOR: Colonel Tennesson
                                         Draper Committee Staff

SUBJECT: Data on Division of Indian Armed Forces in Partition

Chuck, attached is a round-up of the available dope bearing on your question. Some of it we got from G-2. As you can see we aim to please.

In return for this favor I hope you will bear in mind (as you always did at NWC) my personal view that we ought to pay attention to Ayub when he says that he would prefer economic to military aid at this time. I can assure you that the intelligence experts feel that he is right on this score.



R. W. KOMER



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OCI-1521-59

19 March 1959

THE DIVISION Of BRITISH INDIAN MILITARY FORCES
AT THE TIME OF PARTITION

The British Indian Army military forces in 1947 consisted of a relatively large army (391,000), and a small navy (8,700) and air force (13,000). The composition of the forces reflected the policy of the British Indian government to rely chiefly on the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force for naval and air strength. The general principle that governed the division of forces at partition was that the men in the services were to choose either Indian or Pakistani citizenship, and were to take their arms with them to the country of their choice. Most Moslems chose Pakistan and practically all Hindus and Sikhs chose India.

Army

The division of the British Indian army resulted in India's obtaining an army of 260,000 while Pakistan received 131,000. Several factors weakened the Pakistani military establishment. Most workshops and depots were in the territory allotted to India. Also, Pakistan took over no unit larger than a battalion intact, which greatly reduced the army's effectiveness for several years. Pakistan also received delivery of only a fraction of the 165,000 tons of military equipment formally allotted to it. Apparently some of the equipment received had been deliberately damaged by Indian forces.

India also suffered from the disruption of organized units, although not to the same extent as Pakistan. The most significant loss suffered by both sides was the departure of a majority of the British officers of the old Indian army. While both countries retained some British officers, the promotion of Indian and Pakistani officers to positions for which they were often inadequately prepared was a major factor in reducing the effectiveness of the forces.

Navy

India received about 5,700 naval personnel and Pakistan about 3,000. India received 4 sloops, 12 minesweepers, and 1 corvette, and Pakistan received 2 sloops and 4 minesweepers. Pakistan's position was stronger than the personnel division would indicate, for most of the training establishments were located in Pakistan, and most of the senior enlisted men went there. Since the great majority of officers were British, India had few trained men to operate its vessels.

Air Force

India received about 10,000 air force personnel and Pakistan 3,000. India obtained a total of eight squadrons, of which seven were fighter squadrons and the eighth a transport squadron. Pakistan received two fighter squadrons and a few other types of planes.

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DRAPER COMITTEE INFORMATION ON PAKISTAN ARMED FORCES

UNIT

FEBRUARY 1954

FEBRUARY 1959

Army



Corps Hq.

0

1

Infantry Divisions

8

7

Armored Divisions

0

1

Separate Infantry Brigades

2

1

Separate Armored Brigades

1

1

AA Brigade

0

1

Non-Divisional Residents (bns)

15

6

      Recon Regts (armored)

0

2

      Arty Regts

15*

4

Separate Infantry Battalions

0

2

Total Personnel Strength

148,000

174,000

SECURITY FORCES



Total Personnel Strength

50,000

50,000

AZAD KASHMIR FORCES



Infantry Battalions

20

22

Total Personnel Strength

20,000

22,000

NAVY



Cruisers

0

1

Destroyers

3

5

Total Personnel Strength

5,206

7,591

AIR FORCE



Total aircraft

335

404 (incl 139 Jet)

Aircraft in Tactical Units

74

112

Total Personnel Strength

13,567

13,388

• In 1954 the Pakistan Artillery was not organic to the Infantry Division; hence the large number of separate artillery regiments.

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DRAPER COMMITTEE INFORMATION ON INDIAN ARMED FORCES

UNIT

FEBRUARY 1954

FEBRUARY 1959

Army



Corps Hq.

1

2

Infantry Divisions

6

7

Armored Divisions

1

1

Separate Infantry Brigades

8

12

Separate Armored Brigade

1

1

Parachute Brigade

1

1

Artillery Brigade

0

1

Independent Regiments (bns)

10

14

      Light Armored Cavalry

1

4

      Artillery

5

10

      Horse Cavalry

4

0

Separate Infantry Battalions

28

14

Total Personnel Strength

430,000

400,000

State Forces



Horse Cavalry Regiment (bn)

1

0

Infantry Battalions

18

19

Total Personnel Strength

17,000

15,000

Navy



Cruisers

1

2

Destroyers

3

3

Total Personnel Strength

8,635

13,380

Air Force



Total Aircraft

674

1,009

Aircraft in Tactical Units

218

511

Total Personnel Strength

14,255

22,525

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