TRAINING  (File #2)


             Aggressor Force, 1946-78...................p.2
                     Opposition Force (OPFOR)...................p.5
                     Examples of Performance/Trng...............p.6

        See also:  

        USAMHI           Trng - Unit
        dv Nov 88

                       AGGRESSOR FORCE, 1946-1978

                         A Working Bibliography

        A fictitious enemy, the Agressor Force or Maneuver Enemy was a
        training concept created in Nov 1946.  Its doctrine, uniform, and
        equipment came from Ft Riley, KS, at first within the Army General
        School and then, after 1955, the US Army Aggressor Center.  The Force
        was discontinued in 1978.  See these brief accounts:

        The Army Almanac.  Harrisburg, PA:  Stackpole, 1959.  pp. 163-164.

        Emmerich, Rollins S.  "Aggressor Adapts to the Atomic Age."  Army
               Info Digest 15 (Feb 1960):  pp. 34-35.  Per(Soldiers).

        Heymount, Irving.  "How Will Aggressor Fight an Atomic War?"  Mil
               Review XXXVI (Oct 1956):  pp. 46-56.  Per.

        Aggressor uniforms and insignia appear in Military Collector &
        Historian, Vol XV (Summer 1963), pp. 43 & 45 (reprinted in UC480M54,
        pp. 131-32), and in the various eds of the following manual:

        U.S. Dept of Army.  Aggressor, the Maneuver Enemy.  FM 30-101, May
               1959.  232 p.  FM.
                  Color plates and other data on pp. 9-42.  Additional eds
                  dated Jan 1953 (109 p.) and Apr 1961 (188 p.).  Change 1 to
                  the Apr 1962 ed contains 95 p.

        On Aggressor equipment and supplies, see:

        U.S. Army.  Aggressor Center.  Agggressor Supply Catalog.  Ft Riley,
               1 Dec 1955.  35 p.  U260U5A324.

        U.S. Dept of Army.  Aggressor Supplies.  DA Pam 30-30, Sep 1959.
               12 p.  AuthRm.
                  Feb 1962 ed (26 p.) also on file.

        Aggressor Force                                         p.2

        For organizational and operational info, see:

        Infantry 52 (Mar-Apr 1962).  Per.
                  Contains two related articles:  "Born to Lose" by John R.
                  Galvin, pp. 5-7, and "How to Achieve the Best Use of
                  'Aggressor,'" pp. 46-51.

        U.S. Army Aggressor Center.  "U.S. Army Aggressor Center's Support."
               Typescript brochure, 1956(?).  4 p., plus packet of advertising
               posters.  U250A5A53241.

        __________.  Aggressor Rear Services.  Pamphlet, Ft Riley, Oct
               1960.  105 p.  U260U5A3242.
                  Supplement to FM 30-102, cited below.

        U.S. Dept of Army.  Education and Training, the Maneuver Enemy,
               Aggressor.  AR 350-177, Nov 1955.  6 p.  AR.
                  And Oct 1960 ed (7 p.).

        _________.  Esperanto, The Aggressor Language.  FM 30-101-1, Feb
               1962.  231 p.  FM.
                  See same subject, FM 30-101A, Jul 1959.

        _________.  Handbook on Aggressor Military Forces.  FM 30-102,
               Sep 1955.  FM.
                  Also eds of Jun 1947, Aug 1950, Mar 1951, Feb 1959, Jun 1960,
                  Jan 1963, May 1966, Oct 1969, and Jun 1973.

        _________.  Aggressor Army Order of Battle.  FM 40-103, Jun 1947.
               211 p.  FM.
                  Also eds of Jun 1949, May 1951, Jun 1955, Jun 1959, Sep 1960,
                  Spr 1963, Mar 1966, and Jun 1973.

        _________.  Aggressor Army Representation, Operations and Equipment.
               FM 30-104, Jul 1949.  139 p.  FM.
                  Also Feb 1953 ed (156 p.).

        _________.  The Maneuver Enemy, Aggressor.  Training Circular 30-1,
               Aug 1955.  4 p.  Attic.

        _________.  Office of the Adj Gen.  Letter directive, 28 Aug 1953.
               6 p.  AGO ltrs, 1950-53.  Attic.

        Aggressor Force                                         p.3

        Warren, G.C., Jr.  "Aggressor Army."  Infantry School Quarterly 36
               (Jan 1950):  pp. 68-76.  Per.

        See also: - Hist data cards on microfilm:  TAGO Set No 1, Reel #1 on
                          Aggressor Center and TAGO Set No 2, Reel #78 on
                          Aggressor Force.
                     - "NTC" (Trng - Unit)

        USAMHI           Trng - Unit
        dv Jan 90

                        OPPOSITION FORCE (OPFOR)

                         A Working Bibliography

        OPFOR = Spiritual descendant of Aggressor Force (q.v.)

        Johnson, Quinn G.  "They All Hate the Bad Guys of NTC's Mojave."
               Army 37 (Jun 1987):  pp. 42-45 & 48-49.  Per.
                  32d Guards "Opposition Force," Soviet-style.

        McDonough, James R.  The Defense of Hill 781:  An Allegory of Modern
               Mechanized Combat.  Novato, CA:  Presidio Press, 1988.  202 p.
                  Notes his lessons from the NTC in the form of a humorous

        Steele, Dennis.  "The OPFOR:  Friend and Foe."  Army 38 (Dec 1988):
               pp. 28-32.  Per.

        USAMHI        Training-Unit
        js 1985


        Units that performed well after being well trained and badly after
        receiving poor training:

                            Poor                                  Well

                     32nd Inf Div, Buna, 1942                  41st & 24th Div,
                                                                Hollandia, WWII

                     24th Inf Div, Korea, Jul 1950             11th Airborne,
                                                                 Los Banos, 45

                     106th Inf Div, Ardennes,                  4th Armored Div,
                                                                  ETO Dec 1944

                                                               601st & 701st TD
                                                                Bn, El Guettar,

        See also:  - America's First Battles by Chas Heller & Wm. Stofft.

                     - Shortal, John F.  "Hollandia:  A Training Victory."  Mil
                         Review LXVI (May 1986):  pp. 40-48.  Per.