U.S. Anti-Tank Guided Missiles

References:
FM 3-23.24 M47 Dragon Medium Antitank Weapon System (30 August 2001)
FM 3-22.37 Javelin Medium Antiarmor Weapon System (23 January 2003)
FM 3-22.34 TOW Weapon System (November 2003)
Designation-Systems.Net Article on SSM-A-23 Dart by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on MGM-21 by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on MGM-32 Entac by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on BGM-71 TOW by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on FGM-77 Dragon by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on AGM-144 Hellfire by Andreas Parsch
Designation-Systems.Net Article on FGM-148 Javelin by Andreas Parsch
Characteristics Convair
Janes' Infantry Weapons (2007-2008)

SSM-A-23 Dart (Cancelled)

Missile Length: 69”
Missile Diameter: 8.5”
Missile Finspan:34”
Missile Weight: 85 lbs
Missile Motor: XM-23

Maximum Range: 3,000 meters
Warhead: Shape Charge

MGM-21A (SS.10)

Start of Service: January 1960
End of Service: December 1963

Missile Length: 33.9”
Missile Diameter: 6.5”
Missile Finspan:29.5”
Missile Weight: 33 lbs
Missile Motor: Dual Thrust Motor

Maximum Range: 1,600 meters
Warhead: 11 lb Shape Charge (400mm RHA Penetration)

Notes: Was not designated anything but SS.10 in US Army service. The MGM-21A designation came as it was being phased out.

MGM-32A Entac

Start of Service: 1963
End of Service: 1970

Missile Length: 32”
Missile Diameter: 6”
Missile Finspan: 14.8”
Missile Weight: 26.9 lbs
Missile Speed: 190 MPH
Missile Motor: Dual Thrust Motor

Maximum Range: 2,000 meters
Warhead: 8.8 lb Shape Charge (650mm RHA Penetration)

BGM-71A TOW

Start of Service: 1970

Missile Length: 46.2”
Missile Diameter: 6”
Missile Finspan:13.5”
Missile Weight: 49.6 lbs
Missile Motor: Hercules M114 (or Hercules K41?)

Minimum Range: 65 meters
Maximum Range
: 3000 meters
Warhead: 8.6 lb Copper-Lined Shape Charge (600mm RHA Penetration)

(Backblast Danger Area for all TOWs)
(TOW Warhead Diagram)

Notes: Basic TOW launchers cannot be placed closer than 300 meters, because of the set frequency of the xenon beacon in the tail of the missile. If they are placed closer than 300 meters; the launcher guidance unit cannot distinguish between a missile fired by the unit itself or one by a nearby unit. Additionally, the day-sight tracker can be jammed if the frequency of the xenon beacon is known.

BGM-71B TOW

Start of Service: 1976

Minimum Range: 65 meters
Maximum Range
: 3,750 meters

(TOW Warhead Diagram)

BGM-71C Improved TOW (ITOW)

Start of Service: April 1981

Stand-Off: 10” Extendable Probe
Warhead:
4.89” Copper-Lined Diameter Shape Charge (700mm RHA Penetration)

(ITOW Warhead Diagram)

BGM-71D TOW 2

Start of Service: 1983

Stand-Off: 17” Extendable Probe
Warhead: 5.75” Copper-Lined Diameter Shape Charge (800mm RHA Penetration)

Notes: TOW 2 launchers are free of earlier restrictions on siting and are immune to jamming. This is due to the launcher guidance unit being able to send a signal to the missile itself to control the frequency of the xenon beacon; speeding it up or slowing it down randomly; and no two missiles will have the same exact frequency at the same time.

(TOW 2 Warhead Diagram)

BGM-71E TOW 2A

Start of Service: 1987

Missile Motor: Hercules K-41

Warhead: 147mm Copper-Lined Diameter Main Shape Charge with Small Diameter Nose Probe Shape Charge (1,000mm RHA Penetration)

BGM-71E TOW Naval 2A

Start of Service: 1987

Notes: Specialized variant of TOW-2A for use by US Marines on board ships, where electromagnetic energy from radars, etc could cause an unintentional launch.

BGM-71F TOW 2B

Start of Service: 1992

Warhead: Two Downward Firing 147mm Shaped Charge EFPs.

BGM-71F TOW 2B Aero

Maximum Range: 4,500 meters
Warhead: Two Downward Firing 147mm Shaped Charge EFPs.

BGM-71F TOW 2B Aero Wireless

Maximum Range: 4,500 meters
Warhead: Two Downward Firing 147mm Shaped Charge EFPs.

Notes: Replaces guidance wire with a RF transmitter/receiver system.

BGM-71G TOW 2B

Notes: Would have been a variant of the BGM-71F with a different warhead.

BGM-71H TOW Bunker Buster

Notes: TOW 2A with a new warhead for maximum penetration of masonry/reinforced concrete structures.

FGM-77A Dragon I

Start of Service: January 1975

Missile Length: 29.3”
Missile Diameter: 9.8”
Missile Finspan: 13.4”
Missile Weight: 24 lbs

Minimum Range: 65 meters
Maximum Range
: 1000 meters
Warhead: 5.5 lb Shaped Charge (600mm RHA Penetration)

Notes: When firing the Dragon over salt water, the gunner must avoid firing at targets beyond 300 meters. Salt water can short-circuit the command link wire. Raising the launcher 0.3 meter (1 foot) increases the distance the Dragon can be fired over water by 100 meters. Fresh water does not affect command-link wire, so the missile normally can be fired over it.

(Dragon Backblast Diagram)

FGM-77B Dragon II

Start of Service: 1988

Missile Length: 33.3”
Missile Diameter: 5”
Missile Finspan: 15”
Missile Weight: 27.1 lbs
Missile Motor: Dual Thrust Solid Motor

Minimum Range: 65 meters
Maximum Range
: 1,000 meters

FGM-77C Dragon III (Cancelled)

Minimum Range: 65 meters
Maximum Range
: 2,000 meters
Warheads: Shaped Charge + Nose Probe to defeat ERA

Notes: The Dragon III Program was cancelled in 1989.

AGM-114A Hellfire

Start of Service: 1985

Minimum Range: 1,500 meters
Maximum Range
: 8,000 meters
Warheads: 18 lb 6.89” Shape Charge

(Hellfire Warhead Diagram 1)
(Hellfire Warhead Diagram 2)

AGM-114B Hellfire

Missile Motor: Thiokol TX-657 (M120) Reduced Smoke Motor

Notes: Modified version of AGM-114A with a special Safing/Arming Device for use by US Navy/US Marine Corps helicopters from intense electromagnetic environments aboard ships. Introduced the M120E1 Reduced Smoke Motor.

AGM-114C Hellfire

Missile Motor: Thiokol TX-657 (M120E1) Reduced Smoke Motor

Notes: U.S. Army version of AGM-114B without the Safing/Arming Device.

AGM-114D Hellfire (Cancelled)

Notes: Would have been an improved AGM-114C with a new digital autopilot.

AGM-114E Hellfire (Cancelled)

Notes: Would have been an improved AGM-114C with a new digital autopilot, and specialized Safing/Arming Devices for shipboard use by the U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps.

AGM-114F Interim Hellfire

Start of Service: 1991

Notes: Dual Warhead

AGM-114G Interim Hellfire (Not Produced)

Notes: Reserved Designation for U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps version of AGM-114F. Not proceeded with.

AGM-114H Interim Hellfire (Not Produced)

Notes: Would have replaced the analog autopilot of the AGM-114F with a reprogrammable digital autopilot. Not proceeded with.

AGM-114J Hellfire II (Not Produced)

Notes: Would have been the Army version. Not proceeded with.

AGM-114K Hellfire II

Notes: Was to be the U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps version, but was adopted by all services.

AGM-114L Longbow Hellfire

Start of Service: 1998

AGM-114M Hellfire II

Start of Service: December 2000

Notes: Used by MH-60Rs.

AGM-114N Hellfire II

Notes: Thermobaric Warhead version.

AGM-114P Hellfire II

Notes: Variant of AGM-114K designed for high altitude UAV use.

ATM-114Q Hellfire II

Notes: Latest training version.

AGM-114R Hellfire II

Notes: Will have a combined blast-fragmentation / Shape Charged Warhead.

FGM-148A Javelin

Start of Service: 1996

Missile Length: 42.6”
Missile Diameter: 5”
Missile Finspan: 15”
Missile Weight: 26.1 lbs
Missile Motor: Dual Thrust Solid Motor

Minimum Range: 65 meters (Direct Attack); 150 meters (Top Attack)
Maximum Range
: 2,000 meters (14 seconds to maximum range)

Warheads: 18.6 lb Tandem Shaped Charge.

Notes: Can be fired indoors from a room 15 ft long, 12 ft wide, and 7 ft high minimum.

(Javelin Missile Diagram)
(Javelin Missile Components)
(Backblast Danger Profile)
(Top Attack Flight Profiles)
(Direct Attack Flight Profiles)

Weapon Components

Thiokol TX-657 (M120) Reduced Smoke Motor

Length: 0.45m
Diameter: 177mm
Propellant: 12 kg
Burn Time: 3 seconds
Weight: 18 kg

Notes: Used on all modern generations of AGM-114 Hellfires.