U.S. Military Manpower
1789 to 1997

(Updated 9 February 2013)

References:

Table 2-11 from Department of Defense: Selected Manpower Statistics – Fiscal Year 1997 (7.25 MB PDF)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND NOTES

A: [This counts only] military personnel on extended or continuous active duty. Excludes Reserves on active duty for training. Prior year totals have been corrected.
B: Represents "Command Strength" prior to June 30,1966.
C: Army Air Forces and its predecessors for period prior to September 18,1947.
1. Officers include warrant officers, field clerks, and nurses. Enlisted personnel include cadets and midshipmen from the U.S. military academies at West Point, Annapolis, and Colorado Springs, as well as other officer candidates. Both officer and enlisted personnel data exclude figures on the Coast Guard.
2. Data for the year shown are as of June 30 beginning with 1878 for Army, 1900 for Navy, and 1798 for Marine Corps. For prior years, the as of date is the month for which records most completely reveal the total strengths of each Service. In some instances, incremental reports of different dates had to be used to compile a Service total, with the result that the strength shown is not for any particular point in time during that year. Data subsequent to 1976 are as of September 30.
3. Army data begin with 1789, the year in which the Department of War (now the Department of the Army) was established by the new U.S. Congress. Although a "regular" Army has existed continuously since that time, the total strengths cannot be documented from available personnel on extended active duty with the Army (regulars, volunteers, militia, inductees, reserves, and National Guardsmen) and U.S. Military Academy cadets. Data prior to 1861 are for regular Army and cadets only, except for 1836-1840 (Seminole Indian War) and 1846-1848 (War with Mexico). Source documents for other years do not contain adequate strength statistics on nonregular personnel called up during the War of 1812 or for short periods of service during the numerous Indian disturbances. Army data also include strengths of the Army Air Corps and predecessor agencies.
4. Navy strengths for the period 1794-1798 are estimates of the number of "on board" personnel authorized by the U.S. Congress to reestablish a Navy which had existed from 1775 to 1785 under the Continental Congress. A separate Navy Department was authorized and organized in 1798. During the early years of the Navy, crews were usually contracted for a specific sailing or mission rather than a continuous tour of duty. The strengths shown are more in the nature of an average and are, therefore, marked "estimated." Data excluded an unknown number of Naval militia, supplied by the states, who served during the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War.
5. Marine Corps strengths as shown begin in 1798, the year in which the Navy Department and Marine Corps were authorized by an Act of Congress. The Marine Corps was founded in 1775 by the Continental Congress and served during the Revolutionary War, but ceased to exist in 1783. The Marines were reestablished in 1794 when Congress authorized the rebuilding of the Navy. A small number of Marines were used as guards on Navy ships. However, records do not reveal reliable strength data before 1798.

Year

Total

U.S.A. (B)

U.S.N.

U.S.M.C

U.S.A.F. (B) (C)

1789

718

718




1790

N/A

N/A




1791

N/A

N/A




1792

N/A

N/A




1793

N/A

N/A




1794

5,669

3,813 (Est)

1,856 (Est)



1795

5,296

3,440

1,856 (Est)



1796

N/A

N/A

1,856 (Est)



1797

N/A

N/A

1,856 (Est)



1798

N/A

N/A

1,856 (Est)

83


1799

N/A

N/A

2,200 (Est)

368


1800

N/A

N/A

5,400 (Est)

525


1801

7,108

4,051

2,700 (Est)

357


1802

5,432

2,873

2,200 (Est)

359


1803

4,528

2,486

1,700 (Est)

342


1804

5,323

2,734

2,200 (Est)

389


1805

6,498

2,729

3,191 (Est)

578


1806

4,076

2,653

1,105

318


1807

5,323

2,775

2,145

403


1808

8,200

5,712

1,616

872


1809

12,375

6,977

4,875 (Est)

523


1810

11,554

5,956

5,149 (Est)

449


1811

11,528

5,608

5,364

556


1812

12,631

6,686

5,452

493


1813

25,152

19,036

5,525 (Est)

591


1814

46,858

38,186

8,024 (Est)

648


1815

40,885

33,424

6,773

688


1816

16,743

10,231

6,040 (Est)

472


1817

14,606

8,446

5,494 (Est)

666


1818

14,260

8,155

5,545 (Est)

560


1819

13,259

8,506

4,068 (Est)

685


1820

15,113

10,554

3,988

571


1821

10,587

5,773

3,935

879


1822

9,863

5,358

3,774

731


1823

10,871

6,117

4,053 (Est)

701


1824

11,008

5,973

4,095

940


1825

11,089

5,903

4,405

781


1826

11,586

5,989

4,762

835


1827

11,627

5,885

4,796

946


1828

11,431

5,702

4,797

932


1829

12,096

6,332

4,869

895


1830

11,942

6,122

4,929

891


1831

11,173

6,055

4,303

815


1832

12,478

6,268

5,312

898


1833

12,895

6,579

5,420

896


1834

13,396

7,030

5,451

915


1835

14,311

7,337

5,557

1,417


1836

16,874

9,945 (Est)

5,588

1,341


1837

22,462

12,449

8,452

1,561


1838

17,948

9,197

7,656

1,095


1839

19,317

10,691

7,676

950


1840

21,616

12,330

8,017

1,269


1841

20,793

11,319

8,274

1,200


1842

22,851

10,780

10,782

1,289


1843

20,741

9,102

10,555 (Est)

1,084


1844

20,919

8,730

11,103

1,086


1845

20,726

8,509

11,189

1,028


1846

39,165

27,867 (Est)

10,131

1,167


1847

57,761

44,736 (Est)

11,193

1,832


1848

60,308

47,319

11,238

1,751


1849

23,165

10,744

11,345

1,076


1850

20,824

10,929

8,794

1,101


1851

20,699

10,714

8,792

1,193


1852

21,349

11,376

8,805

1,168


1853

20,667

10,572

8,841

1,254


1854

21,134

10,894

8,879

1,361


1855

26,402

15,911

8,887

1,604


1856

25,867

15,715

8,681

1,471


1857

27,345

15,918

9,676

1,751


1858

29,014

17,678

9,729

1,607


1859

28,978

17,243

9,884

1,851


1860

27,958

16,215

9,942

1,801


1861

217,112

186,845

27,881

2,386


1862

673,124

637,264

33,454 (Est)

2,406


1863

960,061

918,354

38,707

3,000


1864

1,031,724

970,905

57,680

3,139


1865

1,062,848

1,000,692

58,296

3,860


1866

76,749

57,072

16,340

3,337


1867

74,886

57,194

14,181

3,511


1868

66,412

51,066

12,268 (Est)

3,078


1869

51,632

36,953

12,295

2,384


1870

50,348

37,240

10,562

2,546


1871

42,238

29,115

10,610

2,513


1872

42,205

28,322

11,680

2,203


1873

43,228

28,812

11,654

2,762


1874

43,609

28,640

12,700

2,269


1875

38,105

25,513

10,479

2,113


1876

40,591

28,565

10,046

1,980


1877

34,094

24,140

8,057

1,897


1878

36,444

26,023

8,087

2,334


1879

38,022

26,601

9,453

1,968


1880

37,894

26,594

9,361

1,939


1881

37,845

25,842

10,101

1,902


1882

37,850

25,811

10,170

1,869


1883

37,278

25,652

9,842

1,784


1884

39,400

26,666

10,846

1,888


1885

' 39,098

, 27,157

10,057

1,884


1886

38,636

26,727

9,909

2,000


1887

38,763

26,719

10,113

1,931


1888

39,035

27,019

10,115

1,901


1889

39,452

27,759

9,921

1,772


1890

38,666

27,373

9,246

2,047


1891

37,868

26,463

9,247

2,158


1892

38,677

27,190

9,448

2,039


1893

39,492

27,830

9,529

2,133


1894

42,101

28,265

11,460

2,376


1895

42,226

27,495

11,846

2,885


1896

41,680

27,375

12,088

2,217


1897

43,656

27,865

11,985

3,806


1898

235,785

209,714

22,492

3,579


1899

100,166

80,670

16,354

3,142


1900

125,923

101,713

18,796

5,414


1901

112,322

85,557

20,900

5,865


1902

111,145

81,275

23,648

6,222


1903

106,043

69,595

29,790

6,658


1904

110,129

70,387

32,158

7,584


1905

108,301

67,526

33,764

7,011


1906

112,216

68,945

35,053

8,218


1907

108,375

64,170

36,119

8,086


1908

128,500

76,942

42,322

9,236


1909

142,200

84,971

47,533

9,696


1910

139,344

81,251

48,533

9,560


1911

144,846

84,006

51,230

9,610


1912

153,174

92,121

51,357

9,696


1913

154,914

92,756

52,202

9,956


1914

165,919

98,544

56,989

10,386


1915

174,112

106,754

57,072

10,286


1916

179,376

108,399

60,376

10,601


1917

643,833

421,467

194,617

27,749


1918

2,897,167

2,395,742

448,606

52,819


1919

1,172,602

851,624

272,144

48,834


1920

343,302

204,292

121,845

17,165


1921

386,542

230,725

132,827

22,990


1922

270,207

148,763

100,211

21,233


1923

247,031

133,243

94,094

19,694


1924

261,189

142,673

98,184

20,332


1925

251,756

137,048

95,230

19,478


1926

247,396

134,938

93,304

19,154


1927

248,943

134,829

94,916

19,198


1928

250,907

136,084

95,803

19,020


1929

255,031

139,118

97,117

18,796


1930

255,648

139,378

96,890

19,380


1931

252,605

140,516

93,307

16,782


1932

244,902

134,957

93,384

16,561


1933

243,845

136,547

91,230

16,068


1934

247,137

138,464

92,312

16,361


1935

251,799

139,486

95,053

17,260


1936

291,356

167,816

106,292

17,248


1937

311,808

179,968

113,617

18,223


1938

322,932

185,488

119,088

18,356


1939

334,473

189,839

125,202

19,432


1940

458,365

269,023

160,997

28,345


1941

1,801,101

1,462,315

284,427

54,359


1942

3,858,791

3,075,608

640,570

142,613


1943

9,044,745

6,994,472

1,741,750

308,523


1944

11,451,719

7,994,750

2,981,365

475,604


1945

12,055,884

8,266,373

3,319,586

469,925


1946

3,024,893

1,435,496

978,203

155,679

455,515

1947

1,582,111

685,458

497,773

93,053

305,827

1948

1,444,283

554,030

417,535

84,988

387,730

1949

1,613,686

660,473

447,901

85,965

419,347

1950

1,459,462

593,167

380,739

74,279

411,277

1951

3,249,371

1,531,774

736,596

192,620

788,381

1952

3,635,912

1,596,419

824,265

231,967

983,261

1953

3,555,067

1,533,815

794,440

249,219

977,593

1954

3,302,104

1,404,598

725,720

223,868

947,918

1955

2,935,107

1,109,296

660,695

205,170

959,946

1956

2,806,441

1,025,778

669,925

200,780

909,958

1957

2,794,761

997,994

676,071

200,861

919,835

1958

2,599,518

898,925

639,942

189,495

871,156

1959

2,503,631

861,964

625,661

175,571

840,435

1960

2,475,438

873,078

616,987

170,621

814,752

1961

2,482,905

858,622

626,223

176,909

821,151

1962

2,805,603

1,066,404

664,212

190,962

884,025

1963

2,698,927

975,916

663,897

189,683

869,431

1964

2,685,782

973,238

665,969

189,777

856,798

1965

2,653,926

969,066

669,985

190,213

824,662

1966

3,092,175

1,199,784

743,322

261,716

887,353

1967

3,375,485

1,442,498

750,224

285,269

897,494

1968

3,546,071

1,570,343

763,626

307,252

904,850

1969

3,458,072

1,512,169

773,779

309,771

862,353

1970

3,064,760

1,322,548

691,126

259,737

791,349

1971

2,713,044

1,123,810

621,565

212,369

755,300

1972

2,321,959

810,960

586,923

198,238

725,838

1973

2,251,936

800,973

563,683

196,098

691,182

1974

2,162,005

783,330

545,903

188,802

643,970

1975

2,128,120

784,333

535,085

195,951

612,751

1976

2,081,910

779,417

524,678

192,399

585,416

1977

2,074,543

782,246

529,895

191,707

570,695

1978

2,061,708

771,624

529,557

190,815

569,712

1979

2,026,892

758,852

523,335

185,250

559,455

1980

2,050,627

777,036

527,153

188,469

557,969

1981

2,082,560

781,419

540,219

190,620

570,302

1982

2,108,612

780,391

552,996

192,380

582,845

1983

2,123,349

779,643

557,573

194,089.

592,044

1984

2,138,157

780,180

564,638

196,214

597,125

1985

2,151,032

780,787

570,705

198,025

601,515

1986

2,169,112

780,980

581,119

198,814

608,199

1987

2,174,217

780,815

586,842

199,525

607,035

1988

2,138,213

771,847

592,570

197,350

576,446

1989

2,130,229

769,741

592,652

196,956

570,880

1990

2,043,705

732,403

579,417

196,652

535,233

1991

1,985,555

710,821

570,262

194,040

510,432

1992

1,807,177

610,450

541,883

184,529

470,315

1993

1,705,103

572,423

509,950

178,379

444,351

1994

1,610,490

541,343

468,662

174,158

426,327

1995

1,518,224

508,559

434,617

174,639

400,409

1996

1,471,722

491,103

416,735

174,883

389,001

1997

1,438,562

491,707

395,564

173,906

377,385